Pug puppies  —  at 6 weeks

You have been able to obtain your dog because somebody bred it for you. Proper breeding of the breed you have got is, therefore, now part of your responsibility, too. If you have a female your potential to make a lasting impression on the breed in this country is enormous. If you have a male, he is bound to be in demand at some time or other, and a good male extensively used at Stud can leave his stamp on generations to come. However, remember an ordinary male is not in demand for stud as the owner of females will always choose the best available.

Do not be conned by those who promote the current fad and advise you to neuter your dog. It is not true that neutering / sterilizing a dog / bitch is essential for the pet’s health. For any breed to improve, it is essential that good specimens like your dog or bitch leave behind worthy progeny. And proper, planned breeding is best done by family-owners like you, rather than commercial breeders and puppy-mills.

The services of a male generally require the giving of the pick-of-the-litter to the owner of the sire. If no puppies are born or if none survives to six weeks’ age  —  when the pup is generally taken  —  then nothing is due. In case only one pup is born or survives, it is only fair to the breeder that the stud owner comes to a suitable compromise, like accepting half the price the surviving puppy can fetch. It is best to discuss all possibilities beforehand, and let it be a matter of good relations between fellow dog owners.

If the terms are payment of stud fee, then it is cash down when the mating is effected. Should the bitch fail, no refund is due in the case of a proven sire, but a free mating to the same bitch on the next season is generally offered. Stud fee is usually much lower than the prevailing price of a puppy. It will vary according to the pedigree of the dog and also depend on whether he has won prizes at Dog Shows. It is advisable not to demand or pay a stud fee for the services of a dog that is not proven, i.e. a dog that is known not to have sired at least one live puppy.

Do not entertain a dog or bitch for mating if the owner cannot produce beforehand the prospective mate’s Registration Certificate in original and standing in the name of the person you are talking to

Never sell or give your puppies as a lot to a dealer, or a ‘pair’ of puppies from the same litter to anyone. If you do, you can rest assured they are taken with the intention of being crossed one to the other. Female puppies need not be sold cheaper than males — they are very important links in the future generations of the breed, and you must make particularly sure that females go to reliable, conscientious persons who can be expected to show due regard to their responsibility as breeders.

The proper age for breeding from a female is at her second or third season, i.e. at about 18 months to 2 years. Thereafter, it is advisable to breed from her not oftener than at every alternate season, i.e. once a year or less frequently. Never breed from your female every 6 months.

A male can first be used at stud at 10 months to 1 year. Thereafter once every two months, till he is 18 months. For all practical purposes, there is no limit to the frequency at which a male be used after the age of 18 months, so long as he is healthy and willing.

A prospective mate should be evaluated by the breed standard, which covers conformation, coat, colour, temperament and movement. In certain breeds it is essential to know which colours can be bred to each other. For instance in Danes Fawns & Brindles can be bred together, and Harlequins, Blacks, Blues and Merles can be bred to each other. In Labradors all colours can be bred together.

A prospective male should also be judged by the progeny he is known to have produced earlier. Some very impressive dogs throw average puppies, whereas some average (but not substandard or defective) dogs are known to produce excellent puppies.

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